Military Tradition of Kalinga (Modern Odisha, East India)
3 types of Soldiers: Paharis (Guardsmen), Banuas (Offensive fire party), Dhenkiyas (Expeditionary Infantry Force, armed with the sword, shield, and archery)
3 types of Infantry soldiers: Itikars (Lance Bearer), Dhanuki (Archers), Phadikares (Swordsman)
“Itikars and Dhanukis were Mountain warfare specialists”
The infantry soldiers in Odisha were classified into four major divisions:
-Bahinipati, Paikaray: Division Commander of an infantry division),
-Dalabehera: CO of an Inf Detachment,
-Nayaks, Gadanayak: Garrison commanders,
-Bahubalendra: Commander of Non-Combatants (Logistics and Support Arms).
27 Paiks= 1 Dala (Detachment) (Commanded by Dalabehera)
70 Dalas= 1 Bhiana (Commanded by Bahinipati)
There was 1 Military Medic (Doctor) per 5 Bhianas (125 Paiks) and 1 Bullock Cart for 7 Bhianas (175 Paiks).
Each Bhiana has 6 Cooks, 12 Servants including Dagaras (Messengers) and Badyakaras (Musicians)
Military Costumes: The military literature Paik Kheda lists 16 military costumes that include ghantimala, ghagudi, olamala, ganthia, kavacha, kaling, bahuti, hoda, baghapati, vala rupachandra, katha, rudhi mala, chakra, handiapati, and jhoba.
Military Dance: Naga Nacha, Paika Nacha, Ranapa Nacha, Chhau Nacha.
Military Musical Instrument: Bheri, Singha, Turi, Dholki, Changu, Dhipa, Khudua, and Jhanja.
Military Literature: The military literature of Odisha include Paika Kheda, Samara Taranga, Rana Taranga, Phiringi kali Bharata, Khalikota Rajanka Yasa, Vir sarvasva, Vira parakrama, Bhudapanka Yudha, and Yudhagita.