Military Tradition of Kalinga (Modern Odisha, East India)

Courtesy: Live History of India

Military Formation:

3 types of Soldiers: Paharis (Guardsmen), Banuas (Offensive fire party), Dhenkiyas (Expeditionary Infantry Force, armed with the sword, shield, and archery)

3 types of Infantry soldiers: Itikars (Lance Bearer), Dhanuki (Archers), Phadikares (Swordsman)

“Itikars and Dhanukis were Mountain warfare specialists”

The infantry soldiers in Odisha were classified into four major divisions:

-Bahinipati, Paikaray: Division Commander of an infantry division),

-Dalabehera: CO of an Inf Detachment,

-Nayaks, Gadanayak: Garrison commanders,

-Bahubalendra: Commander of Non-Combatants (Logistics and Support Arms).

27 Paiks= 1 Dala (Detachment) (Commanded by Dalabehera)

70 Dalas= 1 Bhiana (Commanded by Bahinipati)

There was 1 Military Medic (Doctor) per 5 Bhianas (125 Paiks) and 1 Bullock Cart for 7 Bhianas (175 Paiks).

Each Bhiana has 6 Cooks, 12 Servants including Dagaras (Messengers) and Badyakaras (Musicians)

Military Costumes: The military literature Paik Kheda lists 16 military costumes that include ghantimala, ghagudi, olamala, ganthia, kavacha, kaling, bahuti, hoda, baghapati, vala rupachandra, katha, rudhi mala, chakra, handiapati, and jhoba.

Military Dance: Naga Nacha, Paika Nacha, Ranapa Nacha, Chhau Nacha.

Military Musical Instrument: Bheri, Singha, Turi, Dholki, Changu, Dhipa, Khudua, and Jhanja.

Military Literature: The military literature of Odisha include Paika Kheda, Samara Taranga, Rana Taranga, Phiringi kali Bharata, Khalikota Rajanka Yasa, Vir sarvasva, Vira parakrama, Bhudapanka Yudha, and Yudhagita.




Looking East via High Seas

Love podcasts or audiobooks? Learn on the go with our new app.

Recommended from Medium

The Way to a Military Service of the Future


The Great American Outrage Machine

READ/DOWNLOAD#) The Littorio Class: Italy’s Last a

I think it’s time to truly appreciate our ancestors that came before us.

Why 536 Was Called The Most Terrible Year To Be Alive

Republic of Pineland Special Warfare Don Currency

Burma: a place where heroes are hidden

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store


Looking East via High Seas

More from Medium

How to Accompany a Musical Improv Team

Celtics Vs Warriors Player Props: Klay Thompson Tops Game 5 Props

Is teleportation real or just science fiction?